Ovarian and Gynec Cancer
Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. The female reproductive system contains two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
The exact cause of ovarian cancer is unknown. These factors can increase your risk: a family history of ovarian cancer, genetic mutations of genes associated with ovarian cancer, such as BRCA1 or BRCA2, a personal history of breast, uterine, or colon cancer, obesity, the use of certain fertility drugs or hormone therapies, and Older age is another risk factor. Most cases of ovarian cancer develop after menopause.
Early-stage ovarian cancer rarely causes any symptoms. Advanced-stage ovarian cancer may cause few and nonspecific symptoms that are often mistaken for more common benign conditions.Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer may include:
- Abdominal bloating or swelling
- Quickly feeling full when eating
- Weight loss
- Discomfort in the pelvis area
- Changes in bowel habits, such as constipation
- A frequent need to urinate
Your ovaries are situated deep within the abdominal cavity, so you’re unlikely to feel a tumor. There’s no routine diagnostic screening available for ovarian cancer. That’s why it’s so important for you to report unusual or persistent symptoms to your doctor.Tests and procedures used to diagnose ovarian cancer include , Pelvic exam, Imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scans of your abdomen and pelvis, and Blood tests like CA 125
Once it’s confirmed that you have ovarian cancer, your doctor will use information from your tests and procedures to assign your cancer a stage. The stages of ovarian cancer are indicated using Roman numerals ranging from I to IV, with the lowest stage indicating that the cancer is confined to the ovaries. By stage IV, the cancer has spread to distant areas of the body.
Early-stage ovarian cancer, in which the disease is confined to the ovary, is more likely to be treated successfully. Surgery and chemotherapy are generally used to treat ovarian cancer.Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. At this late stage, ovarian cancer is more difficult to treat so only chemotherapy would only option available for symptomatic relief
There are no proven ways to totally eliminate your risk of developing ovarian cancer. However, there are steps you can take to lower your risk. Factors that have been shown to lower your risk of developing ovarian cancer include: taking oral birth control pills, breastfeeding, pregnancy, and surgical procedures on your reproductive organs